Category Archives: Writings

May 2019 Letter to Supporters

I would like to thank you for the support. I received your letters/cards, and they are greatly appreciated. So many of you know my methods of communication leave a lot to be desired, but my desire is to assure you that your letters and questions in relation to the issues we are all concerned with are important to me. It fuels my fire to move forward and not give up.

I would like to say that many of your questions I tried to answer over the years in various forms of interviews, commentary, while also giving a historical analysis. In the event that you don’t have knowledge of these platforms where you can find needed information in relation to me or answers to some of the questions you may have, you can find them on my website:, Facebook group: “FREE Mutulu Shakur,” or Instagram & Twitter: @FreeDrMShakur. Though I am not the direct administrator over those platforms, it is my understanding that the information provided is usually accurate while every detail may not be available and every detail did not come directly from “the horse’s mouth.” If you need more please ask, and I do appreciate those platforms’ efforts to support.

The last time we spoke, I informed you we were preparing for the filing of my Federal complaint, which unfortunately was not successful. At this point, Judge Wilson’s court order– after denying an oral argument– stated the following; “Circuit case law supports the conclusion that plaintiff’s claims can be made in a section 2241 petition, even though a favorable resolution of the claims might not necessarily lead to speedier release. Third, plaintiff has not identified any alternative vehicle to section 2241 for seeking relief. The court thus dismisses plaintiff’s claims and suggests that plaintiff for a writ of habeas corpus.” We will now be appealing this decision and filing a Habeas Corpus.

It seems to me that the new, recently-elected women of the 2019 Congress are demonstrating political back bone. In an entrenched chamber, their unwarranted targeting for exposing obvious contradictions in Congress requires civic and political awareness by our young women– and men, they will need your support and your critical analysis to give them courage and create political space and capital. That will allow them to continue to confront the abuse of power and the exercise of Congressional favoritism, and give them space for their creative policies.

It is evident that from many sacrifices and consistent challenges to racially disparaging laws, targeting Black and Brown people involved in the underground economy of drugs and opioids keeping them victims trapped in a cycle of economic despair, that the Crack law was unjust, legally indefensible, and contempt to the US constitution. Because of this awareness, we have seen limited, but real, relief coming from the courts: Senator Corey Booker, Van Jones, Jared Kushner and Trump’s First Step Act Bill has resulted in many people getting relief of their sentence. Yes, there is serious criticism that can be leveled, but after spending almost 40 years in prison, to see men and women going home in a correction of a wrong is encouraging and important.

Do not think for a moment that the exposure of the Crack law will discourage those who are hell-bent on creating laws specifically to affect the underclass, Black and Brown of the Nation. There is a statute in the law, titled ” 924(c)” (the use or carry of a firearm in the midst of a drug trafficking or violent crime), that is not similarly applied to violators in the areas of the NRA political strongholds. Research from the community and surveys will determine that this has replaced the new Crack laws in targeting the underserved, and compounding by stacking mandatory terms of 25-year sentences. It is not uncommon to see young men and women with little to no criminal history being subject to hundreds of years in prison due to this statute. Due to the realization and correction of the law, it has been repealed, but still thousands of the initial victims of the law languish in prison because the law was not made retroactive. Here we go again with the same pattern of delay in ruling to determine whether it will become applicable to all the victims of the law, like the Crack law. This cup is not half full. It is said, ‘take no easy victories, the victory must be earned and the task understood.’

The “Redemption Project” creates public awareness and speaks to the necessity of a process for alternative conflict resolution, and, similar to Margaret Burnham’s “Restorative Justice Project,” is another step towards the road to alternative dispute mechanisms while we’re searching for needed healing. These dispute mechanisms have been implemented all over the world to heal our eternal pain of violence and horizontal aggression that we have inflicted on each other, and have been the target of. To understand and heal our souls requires various forms of Truth and Reconciliation, restorative justice and redemption. Paul said, “Try them all.”  Do not underestimate our ability to confront our pain and criticism for the purposes of healing. We must have faith that we can heal, and healing is a process that requires creativity and endurance. There can be no recompence to personal suffering and pain of innocence, but that is the caveat of Redemption and Reconciliation. If a comprehensive approach is found, it can stop there. If you let vengeance stop you from saving a life, the grief will stay with you for life; we must heal. The Redemption Project speaks to real pain caused by historical events, and it requires both that circumstances be properly analyzed and forms of reparations to be addressed. Such as could be done with the COINTELPRO, church bombings, voting rights in souther states, etc. so that those victims may feel inclusive in their process to democracy.

This last summer the FBI identified “Black Identity groups” for domestic surveillance, with no plausible rationale that could be explained but the obvious,  by then, Attorney General Burger session. If history has taught us anything, this will lead into another period of abuse of power and criminalization of thought. This would create another class of abused people detracting from hopes and aspirations for their race. To ensure some safeguards and not to be a fortune teller, a Truth and Reconciliation Commission to monitor and provide a platform that abuses of such power will be addressed could be developed. This would naturally reach a reconciliation phase such as was done in Ireland, Argentina, Uganda, and South Africa. These three steps of creative, objective conflict resolution processes as a dispute mechanism may lead to healing.

There will be a documentary coming out soon this year, on Lincoln Detox Acupuncture drug unit history. That will explain important history about acupuncture and my involvement. I know a lot of you ask me many questions based on this topic, and have lots of interest as well. I believe this documentary will answer a lot of your questions. Please support this project, and stayed tuned for its release.

The painful loss of Nipsey Hussle seems to have snatched hopes and possibility from us all, and yes it always seems there’s something like that. Our loss of my son Tupac, as well as Biggie, reminds us of this type of despair. Do not despair; it is now time to struggle for reconciliation and alternative resolution inside of our community. The only way to end grief is to save a life. Critique, heal and create, so that we can rebuild. Pain will almost always be there, but as my son said, “how long will you mourn me?” More importantly, what will you do to memorialize them? I send my love and respect from the Shakur family to Nipsey’s family. The royalties of the ceremony was unforgettable, and we thank you. Well done to the Red and Blue; they honored his purpose on this plane with their unity. RIP Nipsey… they’re working on it.

The struggle is always for freedom
Long live the independent schools of our community
Dr. Mutulu Shakur

Mother’s Day 2019

This is to all the women in my life, with Love and Respect

Respect is not just a courtesy, it’s an indication of one’s character and a basic indicator of one’s convictions.

I honor you all with this Mother’s day thought, so that I remind myself of who we are and where we come from– a foundation determined by the various women in my life that loved and shaped me, and tried, not knowing my future, to prepare me for all eventualities. So it is said, “In honor of our Women, all Women should be Respected. That would be a reflection of who we are and the depth of our dignity.”

We Love and Honor our women. They hold up the sky.

Still fighting for freedom,
Dr. Mutulu Shakur

August Update from Dr. Mutulu Shakur

Family, Friends:

Thank you for continuing to show your support. I always take pleasure in learning about your varied pursuits in today’s era. Many of your letters offer new insight into the many changes taking place, and your questions give pause to reflect on your perspective.

We are now preparing for the United States Parole Commission’s unprincipled resistance and failure to follow due process in an incremental manner. It continues to be important for you to submit support letters concerning my ability to get a fair hearing, as well as my capabilities to integrate without being a threat to the community and to continue to be of purpose; contrary to what they allege. Judicial and legislative branches have left us all amiss as to what we can expect in this turbulent period. Ironically, it is not apparent if moral consciousness has yet had the prevailing effect over the abuse of power, and expectation of due process.

danai-gurira As you know, “All Eyez On Me” was released this summer and received mixed reviews. I have yet to see the film, but I have been in contact with the actor who portrayed me, Jamie Hector. I find it refreshing to have an established artist make contact to determine if his work has done a historical role justice. I am humbled through the sincerity of our interaction, and his intention; the yearning in his search for the truth is revealing. Again, I have not seen the film, but from all personal comments and reviews, Jamie has done justice to my character and did not disrespect the legacy of the Shakurs. I was also very pleased that Afeni was portrayed by Danai Gurira, of The Walking Dead. She has a natural essence similar to Afeni, evident in her role as “Machone.” I am also told that she will continue her role in the upcoming Black Panther movie.

From our conversations, it was apparent that Jamie acknowledges the complexity of the struggles of those times. Clearly, I cannot determine whether or not the movie or characters captured the essence of the movement in its totality or the legacy of my son justly. Knowing that Tupac was birthed in the intense struggle of the Black Power movement, his life journey manifested the wounds of that era’s conflicts. Many questions have been raised, as to ‘how we got there.’

A Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) process, utilized all over the world most notably in South Africa, offers a process available to all sides hopefully. Further interaction with Jamie and others will encourage the social appetite of artists to invest in the TRC process. There is a new timely rule, initiated by a report and recommendation by U.N. Rapporteur Juan Mendez and accepted by the U.N. General Assembly, know as the “Nelson Mandela Rule.” I support the “Nelson Mandela Project” with the Jericho Movement.

I have been selected to be recognized at the 2017 Annual Black Power Awards in Georgia. I still need more information and background about the event, but I am truly honored to be recognized amongst peers who have learned like me the many lessons from the earlier Black Power period.

Kalief Browder, a young man who committed suicide after three years of wrongful incarceration at Rikers

Kalief Browder, a young man who committed suicide after three years of wrongful incarceration at Rikers

We all have our work cut out for us, but we also need to acknowledge the efforts of one another: Jamie Hector and the successes of the Moving Mountains film and acting school for at-risk youth; Sophia Dawson and brother Peekaso for their artistic expression in advocacy of political prisoners– Sophia recently presented an exhibit reflecting the path of our struggle at the Bronx Museum’s Biennial showcase and Peekaso demonstrated his painting talents while on stage during a live concert while both artists have created and presented exceptional paintings of me and others in raising awareness to cases, for which we are grateful; Celebrated acupuncturist and healer, comrade Tatsuo Hirano, has put forth efforts to establish an acupuncture treatment program within the California penal system to treat prisoner-patients for symptoms of P.T.S.D. and post-incarceration Syndrome (PICS), by implementing the Lincoln Detox acupuncture protocols continuing our legacy; Chokwe Lumumba and his son, both great men, have been elected by citizens of Jackson, Mississippi as mayors; both are historical victories. We are elated!! Prior to his passing, Chokwe Lumumba Sr. was Tupac’s attorney as well as mine, and a brother in our struggle. We are proud of his son and very optimistic about the future; Colin Kaepernick for willfully jeopardizing his career in protest of police shootings of unarmed civilians (his actions charge us that there are sacrifices and consequences for raising awareness to injustice, we have the responsibility to demonstrate support; otherwise people like Colin will continue to be marginalized and punished for their peaceful protest); Jay-Z recently did great work on the Kalief Browder documentary and editorial in Time Magazine regarding the broken and discriminatory bail system in the United States; Dr. Sonnee Weedn has done amazing research and development of brain imaging, to which we hope to remain engaged.

We are very pleased to have received official support from our Harlem congressman for my release on parole in 2018. I prevail that we should continue our efforts in pursuit of congressional support and political capital towards the end goal of releasing our prisoners. Time is not on our side– I’m sure there is more, but space will not allow. Truthfully, I do not have the time to correspond individually; hopefully this gives respect to your letters and concerns.

I want to recognize and say ‘thank you’ to everyone on social media who continues to show their support through Twitter and Facebook. I encourage you to reach out to the tech squad if you’d like to be involved with upcoming projects they are organizing, such as art shows for political prisoners awareness. Stay connected as we continue ‘straight ahead.’

“Colin can’t get work, Mutulu still in jail, why Philando and Sandra never made bail?”

Mud and Water
‘Pray for Me and Picture Me Rollin’

Commemoration Statement for the Chokwe Lumumba Center for Economic Democracy

lumumba centerThe Lumumba Center opened its doors in January 2015, and commemorated one-year  since the passing of the late Mayor Chokwe Lumumba in February 2015.  The Lumumba Center will serve as the base for Cooperation Jackson and its overall operations including the Sustainable Communities Initiative (SCI), the Nubia Lumumba Arts and Culture Cooperative of Cooperation Jackson, the Freedom Farms Cooperative, the Malcolm X Grassroots Movement (MXGM), the Jackson People’s Assembly, and the People’s Task Force.  Dr. Mutulu Shakur wrote the following statement for the occasion.


In the assembly of our efforts on a national front to advance the ideology of brother Chokwe, Constitutional Attorney, we must be very persistent in this volition. We must become sufficiently pragmatic in our economic predictability on an administrative level, so as to upsurge our own political capitol and mount the economic equity necessary to hurdle ourselves toward a participatory economic democracy that is sustainable, with merit, and that also reflects our principles and values.

It is important that we develop a municipal economic structure paragon to a people set free in our essence to determine our own destiny and set a foundation of meaningful interaction and substance with the rest of the world, particularly throughout the Diaspora with the emerging new economic paradigm. Such as the example of president Robert Mugabe going against all odds in the implementation of indigenization for the people of southern Africa. Then with merit, that our capitol reflects genuinely in the amelioration of our communities, the education of our children and the survival of our people as we desire.

We are here today to recognize the leadership and sacrifice of a individual who immersed his ideology in the New Afrikan code of Umoja, which requires upon acceptance of that pledge that we bring into this nation…brothers and sisters, mothers and fathers…who were left by the wayside as a result of the alluvium repression and historical victories acquired by plausible alms to the struggle. We stand on the onyx of a revolutionary thinker, democratic lawyer, electoral official and a grassroots liberator who shined forth with all the strategical dexterity of a thousand suns. We you…must honor this great man not by just labeling his theory as Chokweism but by putting into fruition the cornerstone of his concept that will allow our people to dream, live free, eat and allow the creative essence of their minds to see the future from here to Mars. This is what we call—“Economic Democracy.” In fact!

It is understood…we do have very important tangible societal goals to accomplish for our future. One of which is our accumulative experience and intensified research to develop a strategy to forward the individual and community health of a people who have been targeted. This strategy should not be underestimated. While many of our comrades have never succumbed to lack of spirit, lack of audacity, and in some cases even the lack of support, we owe it to our legacy to as much as possible prevent the reoccurring health tragedies that have taken away our celestial warriors. We who believe in God know that all things are in the will of Allah, but we also know that we do not have a medical think tank or a forensic medical unit that responds to our particular needs, at anytime and anywhere. We should not have to depend on the opposition. So, the theory and implementation of our chairman’s economic democracy must include in the debate the health of our people and our nation.

I conclude, in the spirit of our beautiful comrade Chokwe Lumumba, do all you can to interpose power to the people!!!

Stiff Resistance,
Dr. Mutulu Shakur

Fight for the Legacy (July 2014)

A commentary on Holler If Ya Hear Me, the Tupac-inspired musical directed by Kenny Leon and starring Saul Williams.

holler-if-ya-hear-me-poster-600x222In these times, we must demand something from the culture. Over the years, the mainstream culture has forced the pop culture to use unthinkable maneuvers to try to destroy Tupac’s essence, and the success of his legacy. From objective observation, the mainstream culture hasn’t been successful. The media has been a tool and an sidekick of political order to destroy, characterize and quiet a voice they oppose. Thus far, Tupac and his legacy, with the help of his fans and family has defeated their strategy. The death of his persona should not be left in the hands of those who rejected him.

Broadway is an important indicator of any artist’s legacy. It’s a place where the world recognizes such. It’s not a question that Tupac must make it on Broadway, not only for his legacy, but for the endurable spirit of the hip-hop culture, and yes the struggle. Tupac personifies both aspects. It is said on Broadway that, “if you can make it on Broadway, you can make it anywhere,” but in truth if you are loved everywhere Broadway should want you there. As the caravans and theater workshops spreads his legacy and contributions of the culture that he represented around the shantytowns, favellas and ghettos of the world, his story told on Broadway must be whole-heartedly supported. As a symbolic worldwide recognition of his importance and contribution to the art and the struggle.

Broadway is known as the vehicle theater where tragedies, joys, triumphs of events, extraordinary people, and extraordinary accomplishments have prevailed.

The tradition of doing a play on his birthday is distinguished by the Broadway play. Broadway theater does not diminish the very real importance of the grassroot and street theaters all over the world, but as we say, “his fans and admirers must overwhelm the Broadway venue as an act of protest-‘yes’ protest!” From then, we have encountered the manipulation of his legacy and maintained that his work and his life has a universal acceptance. Thereby memorializing his legacy in that venue.

Tupac wanted change and the mass media resisted that change, because of:
1) some couldn’t understand it,
2) many was afraid, and
3) a small conglomerate wanted it silenced.

We the dreamers, the hopers and the have-nots understood it, embraced it, and was all the way down with it. Tupac’s special ability to be self-revealing through his art is what made him uniquely qualified as an artist to express our desires, fears and vulnerabilities.
Tupac represented the tragedy of change, the triumph of change, and the joy of change. He gave us hope, he gave voice to not the voiceless, but to the voices that were rejected, crying out for comprehension and a new tomorrow. He truly felt that pain. Tupac’s art and his lyrics represented those who wanted in and yes those who wanted out, and to be left in their own space. His representation of moving the people in a free-spirited direction, searching for answers to represent us all from the chains of the struggle. Tupac’s direction was positive, unified an the task was herculean especially in light of his own admitted faults vulnerabilities and unconventional thinking he exposed to the world through his lyrics, his performance, and songs [a triple threat capability], consequences be damned and we loved it. Pac said “lace me with the words of destruction and I’ll explode, but supply me with the will to survive and watch the world grow.” And he also said “shattered black talents style thoughts I throw, if it remains in your brain then of course it grows.”

The new generation must know who he was, what he represented and see the impact that he has left today all over the world. Tupac was not a aberration, a fad, or a trend. He was a healer, he was a continuation of a spirit, he was a voice, he was love, he was the struggle and a painter through the manifestation of his art…He believed we would follow him through his art as he painted the world before our eyes. He saw nothing but his dreams  coming true while staring through the world from his rearview. He had found the answer to his question, if dreams come true?, by leaving behind his legacy and paving the way for our future of having the first Black president. He screamed, “never forget those locked-down who fought for our freedom that we enjoy today- they are our political prisoners.”

As Bob Marley, Hugh Maeskla, and Nina Simone, when your voice remains as powerful as Tupac’s, the challenge to discern its different forms and genre can seem dyslexic. In fact, for many navigating the presentation of his art and his different forms, venues, various angles and colors begs for intense examination while being forever nimble in its tasks; that is essential for the appreciation of his essence.

The same has been true for the hip-hop culture overall as it arrived to a permanent footprint in the artistic landscape. In the past, someone or some great event ushers in the transition; in this instance, we cannot deny that Tupac was a major contributor in our third eye. We watched him stubbornly, with severe sacrifices, resist stereotypical typecasting; yes he braved the expansion, gave his body and soul to save the culture he loved from being kidnapped into the abyss, and had the audacity and the ability to inject into our DNA the real purpose of hop-hop culture that is a vehicle of change. With that, we became whole. This is a man’s work now intergrading the great white way. For Tupac, it is ripe to seize the time. In our lives, we define who we are through struggle. We never know if time is precise; we depend on other indicators to guide the way.

The ethereal callings not to be over-metaphysical, but we come from a different place, we survive off of different laws of the universe. The “stars” (a special ensemble) emerge to transmit this play/legacy into the rightful place in our cultural passage.

Afeni Shakur, his mother, believes in this play it continues her ever consecrated devotion to assure the memorialization of Tupac and his art and give to us. She acknowledges and understands how germane and imperative it is for this era.

Tupac like Pablo Neruda performed in his other self voice gave the defiant silence of the masses of chile the courage to resist the oppressive state apparatus. He became the beacon not only for Chile but for Latin America. So to has the phoenix of Tupac our true renaissance artist of his generation gave voiced to a jettison and ignored culture, and demanded respect. We are hip-hop and relevant; this man child gone too soon served us well.

Tupac the invisible man, Curtis Mayfield predicted will come is still here. Whether he becomes “invisible” depends entirely on us. I prevail on you to support this play now what it would mean for the future renaissance.

“Right on to the darkness”
Long live the words of Tupac,

-Dr.  Mutulu Shakur

For Yuri Kochiyama


From: Nobuko Miyamoto

Dear friends of Yuri and Mutulu,

I visited Yuri mid-April with my friend Patty Hirota. We didn’t expect much because the last couple visits she had been drifting in great discomfort. We were filling time browsing the wall of photos above her bed, cozied with her stuffed animals. She stirred a bit and seemed willing to eat.  While feeding her I said, “Mutulu is coming up for parole in August.” She somehow sprung to life. “Where is he? What is happening?” Patty and I looked at each as Yuri went on, “We have to get everyone together…we have to help Mutulu,“ she repeated over and over. Then she lifted her frail hand in my direction and said, “you have to get everyone together.” 

I shared this with Mutulu when Tatsuo and visited last weekend. Mutulu, as always, shared his deep concern for her. On the morning of June 1, dear sister Yuri finally left her body.

With loving respect for her wishes…”We have to get everyone together.”


From Mutulu:  


From your last discussion concerning your visit to Yuri, I yearned for her to be free– something that we do not like to say to each other. But most of my life Yuri’s spirit has been a comforting factor in all matters to our lives in struggle. A true ally and sister, friend and comforter. The last stages of her mental capacity must have been a task for her to comprehend. But knowing her and the many agendas she entertained, no thought, no statement, no directive did not have a precise objective. She was a person with a driving thirst to accomplish, and in her next life we better get on our p’s and q’s.  She will be guiding our lazy spirits that yearn for rest. We must answer Yuri’s call and her example of a thriving spirit in all stages of existence.
Continue reading

To the Mothers on Mother’s Day

In life, all women are mothers.

I’d like to take this time in my life to recognize all of the magnificent, intricate, inspiring women that have molded my existence. The courage I have gained from their love for me has taught me to believe, depend on, and trust that love. I truly could not have emerged into the person I am today without the special critiques, direction, ideas and love from you all for which I am so thankful.

As life’s true importance settles my path for a better tomorrow, I keep in my heart that advice. I continue to speak the words of all of the uniqueness you all represent. Every infinite aspect means so much as I travel this path. We males, so many times, have missed the happiness that comes from the source of listening to you. We are surely lost without you, for you shape and form our spirit. Please do not give up on us; and I promise you, we will teach each other to try harder to earn your love and respect. For whatever I mean to you, I am thankful and proud, and I wear the confident smile.

Stiff Resistance,
Mutulu Shakur

A Message to the Montefiore-Einstein Medical Center Doctors of Family & Community Medicine

montefiore-einstein-signIn extending great enthusiasm and support for the objectives of the Montefiore Medical Center Community Doctors (MMCCD), I have kept in mind that 45 years ago an army of committed and concerned have-nots did take a realistic look at the state of the under-served health population in the City of New York, and; From all angles in the streets, community centers, hospitals and mobile experimental units tried to apply a predictable skill, and alternative modalities in which to give some predictability and healing for our community.

That (MMCCD) has decided to resuscitate/professionalize and to apply the same theory in these days and times could not have come at a more crucial stage in the role health care is playing or not playing in the political theater of the United States political paradigm. The awareness of the masses to the motives of the state must ultimately be revealed, by an astute politically conscious and medically deprived population. The revealing stage of the objectives of the American Medical Association and the pharmaceutical companies of 45 years ago was revealed when the collaboration of the state, city and national political apparatus made an attempt to convince the population that the war on drugs could be won and controlled by the introduction of a deadly chemical methadone.

I salute you, the medical cadres of the Black Panther Party, The Young Lords Party, Peoples Free Health Centers, Lincoln Detox, May 19th, John Brown Anti-Klan and; The Republic of New Africa salutes them as well for utilizing all the powers at their disposal to force the victims of the drug plague to submit to extraordinary doses of medication just so they would not be a part of the so called criminal class. We called it then as it was, chemical warfare, and chemical Genocide.

Today we have tons of research and great practitioners such as doctors, nurses, acupuncturists, midwives and activists that are trying to make up for the lack of consistent consciousness of the masses as to the effectiveness of alternative medicine. The task will be hard, and the opposition by the pharmaceutical companies and the media, will be severe.

I look forward to see the day that the work of our past comrades will be carried on by the work of MMCCD and others; Because so many of those comrades are underground, in prison, martyred or in exile. They suffered tremendous damages and casualties because of their effort to provide health care to the masses. If there are those who doubt this, then they should join me in calling for a Truth and Reconciliation Commission on how the FBI’s illegal Counter Intelligence Program (COINTELPRO) conducted low intensity warfare waged against alternative health care in the 60′, 70′s, and 80′s.

Thank you all who provide the opportunity for resurrecting the work of community-based medicine and; I am very proud that the municipal hospitals in the city of New York make available the alternative acupuncture treatment that we started at Lincoln Detox and carried on in BAAANA for the victims of the Drug Plague, Post-Traumatic Stress, and secondary conditions.

I congratulate Montefiore-Einstein for this innovation.

Aim High and Go All Out,
Long live the spirit of Lincoln Detox and BAAANA,
Stiff resistance,

Dr. Mutulu Shakur